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REVIEW ARTICLES
Novel coronavirus disease 2019 and perinatal outcomes
Morvarid Irani, Ali Pakfetrat, Mahin Kiyani Mask
2020, 9:78 (28 April 2020)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_189_20  
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Given the prevalence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the lack of information on coronavirus and pregnancy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of COVID-19 and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present review article, the search process was conducted on English and Persian scientific databases of PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Magiran, Irandoc, Iranmedx, and SID as well as the websites of international organizations of World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using the main keywords of “Pregnancy,” “Perinatal outcomes,” “Coronavirus,” “COVID-19,” “MERS-CoV,” “MERS,” “SARS-CoV-2,” and “SARS-CoV-1” and their Persian-equivalent keywords from inception until March 16 2020. RESULTS: The findings of studies on mothers with COVID-19 were limited, and insufficient information is available on the adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19. In cases of infection with other coronaviruses such as Middle East respiratory syndrome and severe acute respiratory syndrome during pregnancy, there have been reports on adverse pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm labor, low birth weight, and congenital malformations following high fever in the first trimester. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women may be more susceptible to viral respiratory infections, including COVID-19, due to immunological and physiological changes. Therefore, pregnant women should take routine preventive measures, such as washing their hands frequently and avoiding contact with infected people, to prevent infection.
  26,578 725 1
The prevention and control the type-2 diabetes by changing lifestyle and dietary pattern
Mohammad Asif
2014, 3:1 (21 February 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.127541  PMID:24741641
Type-2 diabetes is a major, non-communicable disease with increasing prevalence at a global level. Type-2 diabetes results when the body does not make enough insulin or the body cannot use the insulin it produces. Type-2 diabetes is the leading cause of premature deaths. Improperly managed, it can lead to a number of health issues, including heart diseases, stroke, kidney disease, blindness, nerve damage, leg and foot amputations, and death. Type-2 diabetes or adult-onset diabetes is most common type of diabetes, usually begins when a person is in his or her mid-50s, but diabetes is not inevitable. Minor changes in your lifestyle can greatly reduce your chances of getting this disease. Therefore, in order to prevent this condition, action should be taken regarding the modifiable factors that influence its development-lifestyle and dietary habits. However, with proper testing, treatment and lifestyle changes, healthy eating as a strategy, promote walking, exercise, and other physical activities have beneficial effects on human health and prevention or treatment of diabetes, promoting adherence to this pattern is of considerable public health importance.
  22,030 4,226 100
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Social influence of COVID-19: An observational study on the social impact of post-COVID-19 lockdown on everyday life in Kerala from a community perspective
Joyal Alias Saji, Bichu P Babu, Shaliet Rose Sebastian
2020, 9:360 (29 December 2020)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_650_20  
BACKGROUND: The current novel coronavirus pandemic started as a simple outbreak in December 2019 from Wuhan, China, and it has now become a global threat. The governments from most of the countries including India have already taken strict precautionary measures to reduce the coronavirus spread such as social distancing, closure of schools, colleges, airports, restaurants, shopping malls, and other places where the people might gather. An increase in the levels of anxiety, aggression, depression, forgetfulness, and hallucinations are possible psychological effects of isolation. Too little is understood of the social impact of the pandemic. AIM: To study the social impact of post-COVID-19 lockdown in Kerala from a community perspective. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 700 families (50 families from each district) from all the 14 districts of Kerala from during April-May 2020 using respondent-driven sampling. The data were analyzed and the categorical variables have been presented as percentages and proportions. RESULTS: Anxiety (44%) and fear (44.3%) were reported by many of the study participants. The survey also picked up an increase in the prevalence of domestic violence (13.7%) during the period. The most common social change brought about by the lockdown was an improvement in the hygiene practices among the study population. CONCLUSION: The present study highlights the positive social changes brought about as a result of the COVID-19 lockdown. Further studies need to be conducted on a larger scale to assess the psycho-behavioural impact of COVID-19 on the wider population.
  20,418 681 2
REVIEW ARTICLES
Learning theories application in nursing education
Fatemeh Aliakbari, Neda Parvin, Mohammad Heidari, Fariba Haghani
2015, 4:2 (23 February 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.151867  PMID:25767813
Learning theories are the main guide for educational systems planning in the classroom and clinical training included in nursing. The teachers by knowing the general principles of these theories can use their knowledge more effectively according to various learning situations. In this study, Eric, Medline, and Cochrane databases were used for articles in English and for the Persian literature, Magiran, Iran doc, Iran medex, and Sid databases were used with the help of keywords including social cognitive learning, learning theory, behavioral theory, cognitive theory, constructive theory, and nursing education. The search period was considered from 1990 to 2012. Some related books were also studied about each method, its original vision, the founders, practical application of the training theory, especially training of nursing and its strengths and weaknesses. Behaviorists believe that learning is a change in an observable behavior and it happens when the communication occurs between the two events, a stimulus and a response. Among the applications of this approach is the influence on the learner's emotional reactions. Among the theories of this approach, Thorndike and Skinner works are subject to review and critique. Cognitive psychologists unlike the behaviorists believe that learning is an internal process objective and they focus on thinking, understanding, organizing, and consciousness. Fundamentalists believe that learners should be equipped with the skills of inquiry and problem solving in order to learn by the discovery and process of information. Among this group, we will pay attention to analyze Wertheimer, Brunner, Ausubel theories, Ganyeh information processing model, in addition to its applications in nursing education. Humanists in learning pay attention to the feelings and experiences. Carl Rogers support the retention of learning-centered approach and he is believed to a semantic continuum. At the other end of the continuum, experiential learning is located with the meaning and meaningful. It applies the minds and feelings of the person. From this group, the main focus will be on the works of Rogers and Novels. Finally, it could be concluded that the usage of any of these theoriesin its place would be desired and useful.
  18,146 2,490 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Personal hygiene among college students in Kuwait: A Health promotion perspective
Jenan M Al-Rifaai, Aneesa M Al Haddad, Jafar A Qasem
2018, 7:92 (6 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_158_17  PMID:30079363
Background: Most infectious diseases result from a lack of knowledge and poor personal hygiene. Hand hygiene, in particular, is one of the most common means by which pathogens are transmitted. The aim of this study was to determine college student's knowledge and awareness of personal hygiene in Kuwait. Materials and Methods: A multi-dimensional health assessment approach was followed using a self-administered questionnaire that was distributed among students of two colleges (the College of Nursing and the College of Health Sciences). Item analysis was conducted on 33 items of the questionnaire and measure five types of hygiene practices: hand hygiene, body hygiene, special hair application, oral care, and clothes hygiene. The data collected in the questionnaires and results were analyzed using statistical software SPSS version 23. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Student's t-test. Internal consistency, reliability was good, with an overall Cronbach's Alpha value of 0.749. Results: Most respondents were female with 64%, while 80% of the college students were in the age of <20-year-old. Twelve items were underhand hygiene practices, and four items under body hygiene. Nine items were under oral care; three, items were under hair application. Three were under clothes hygiene. Conclusions: This study showed that female students had a better knowledge and were more hygienic in hand hygiene, hair application, and body hygiene whereas, male students showed a better oral hygiene practice. Nevertheless, this study shows that the hygiene questionnaire is an acceptable and reliable measure of awareness and practice among college students.
  18,999 963 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Efficacy of cloth face mask in prevention of novel coronavirus infection transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Suresh K Sharma, Mayank Mishra, Shiv K Mudgal
2020, 9:192 (28 July 2020)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_533_20  
INTRODUCTION: Novel coronavirus is believed to be tiny enough (0.08–0.14 μm) to penetrate through face mask, thus protection offered by cloth mask may be too low. However, the use of cloth face mask in community has been recommended by the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention and regulatory bodies of other countries. There is paucity of literature on efficacy of cloth face mask in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection transmission; thus, this review aims to update the available most recent evidences on efficacy of cloth face masks in prevention of viral infection transmission. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Clinical Trials Register for identifying studies related to this review using free-text terms and MeSH terms. Both experimental and observational studies on efficacy of cloth masks which were published in English language have been included in this review except expert opinions, commentaries, editorials, and review articles. Twelve studies were eligible to be included in review for data extraction and qualitative synthesis was carried out from extracted data but quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) could not be performed because of serious heterogeneity between the studies. RESULTS: Cloth face masks show minimum efficacy in source control than the medical grade mask. The efficacy of cloth face masks filtration varies and depends on the type of material used, number of layers, and degree of moisture in mask and fitting of mask on face. CONCLUSION: Cloth face masks have limited efficacy in combating viral infection transmission. However, it may be used in closed, crowded indoor, and outdoor public spaces involving physical proximity to prevent spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  17,063 2,358 21
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A study of internet addiction and its effects on mental health: A study based on Iranian University Students
Javad Yoosefi Lebni, Razie Toghroli, Jaffar Abbas, Nazila NeJhaddadgar, Mohammad Reza Salahshoor, Morteza Mansourian, Hadi Darvishi Gilan, Neda Kianipour, Fakhreddin Chaboksavar, Seyyed Amar Azizi, Arash Ziapour
2020, 9:205 (31 August 2020)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_148_20  
INTRODUCTION: The Internet has drastically affected human behavior, and it has positive and negative effects; however, its excessive usage exposes users to internet addiction. The diagnosis of students' mental dysfunction is vital to monitor their academic progress and success by preventing this technology through proper handling of the usage addiction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive-analytical study selected 447 students (232 females and 215 males) of the first and second semesters enrolled at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2018 by using Cochrane's sample size formula and stratified random sampling. The study applied Young's Internet Addiction Test and Goldberg General Health Questionnaire 28 for data collection. The study screened the data received and analyzed valid data set through the t-test and Pearson's correlation coefficient by incorporating SPSS Statistics software version 23.0. RESULTS: The results of the current study specified that the total mean score of the students for internet addiction and mental health was 3.81 ± 0.88 and 2.56 ± 0.33, correspondingly. The results revealed that internet addiction positively correlated with depression and mental health, which indicated a negative relationship (P > 0.001). The multiple regression analysis results showed students' five significant vulnerability predictors toward internet addiction, such as the critical reason for using the Internet, faculty, depression, the central place for using the Internet, and somatic symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings specified that students' excessive internet usage leads to anxiety, depression, and adverse mental health, which affect their academic performance. Monitoring and controlling students' internet addiction through informative sessions on how to use the Internet adequately is useful.
  17,704 768 10
Impact of social media on academic performance and interpersonal relation: A cross-sectional study among students at a tertiary medical center in East India
Sandeep Lahiry, Shouvik Choudhury, Suparna Chatterjee, Avijit Hazra
2019, 8:73 (24 April 2019)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_365_18  PMID:31143790
CONTEXT: There is limited evidence on the influence of social media among medical students. AIMS: To assess the pattern of social media usage among medical students in eastern part of India and analyze self-perceived impact on academic performance and interpersonal relations. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on an online survey, taken by 650 medical students at a tertiary medical center in Kolkata. The survey was created using an online tool, Google Forms. It assessed social media usage patterns and students' perspective on how it affects their academic performance and interpersonal relations. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the association between self-rated academic performance and social and physical well-being, with different variables, assuming linear relationships. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The usable responder rate was 55.23%, with majority being undergraduates (57.3%) in the age group of 18–24 years. The proportion who confirmed using social media was 88.58% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85.29%–91.87%), mainly for academic purposes (82.73%; 95% CI: 78.82%–86.64%). In general, social media usage was more prevalent among medical students compared to paramedical and nursing students (P = 0.009), although the extent of use for an academic purpose was comparable. Nearly two-thirds (60.87%) regarded social networking having a positive (improved) impact on academic performance. However, the perceived impact on interpersonal relations was inconclusive (i.e., was positive and negative in a nearly equal measure; 45% each). CONCLUSIONS: Social media usage for academic purposes is high among medical and paramedical students. Students benefit from social networking and are conscious of its positive as well as negative influence on interpersonal relations.
  15,023 666 -
The Effect of aerobic exercise on primary dysmenorrhea: A clinical trial study
Zahra Mohebbi Dehnavi, Farzaneh Jafarnejad, Zahra Kamali
2018, 7:3 (10 January 2018)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_79_17  PMID:29417063
Introduction: Primary dysmenorrhea without pelvic pathology is one of the most common complaints in women's medicine. Primary dysmenorrhea can affect the quality of life of women. Aerobic exercise is one of the ways to reduce the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. The present study aimed to determine the effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise on the severity of primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: This is a clinical trial study performed on 70 students with primary dysmenorrhea in dormitories of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences in 2015. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The instrument was a visual pain questionnaire completed by the two groups in the first 3 days of the menstrual cycle. The exercise protocol included aerobic exercise, which performed the intervention group for 8 weeks, three times a week, and each time for 30 min. Data were analyzed by Fisher and Chi-square tests. Results: The control and intervention groups were homogeneous in terms of demographic characteristics. Results showed that the severity of primary dysmenorrhea at the beginning of the study was not significantly correlated with the two groups. At the end of the 4 weeks after the intervention, the intervention group did not show any significant changes in the control group (P = 0.423) but At the end of 8 weeks after the study, the intervention group showed significant changes compared to the control group (P = 0.041). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that performing aerobic exercise can improve primary dysmenorrhea. Therefore, aerobic exercise can be used to treat primary dysmenorrhea.
  11,853 1,681 17
Breast self-examination awareness and practices in young women in developing countries: A survey of female students in Karachi, Pakistan
Ayesha Ahmed, Ibrahim Zahid, Zoya Fatima R Ladiwala, Rija Sheikh, Amjad S Memon
2018, 7:90 (6 July 2018)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_147_17  PMID:30079361
Background: Breast cancer is a leading cause of deaths worldwide. In Pakistan, one in every nine women develops breast cancer some time in her life. This high incidence of breast cancer and the poor socioeconomic conditions of Pakistan make breast self-examination (BSE) the best tool for the prevention and early diagnosis of breast cancer. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of BSE among female college students of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1000 students from June to December 2016. Data were collected using a pre-piloted questionnaire, and SPSS (version 20) was used for data analysis. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the difference in knowledge and attitude among participants who had performed BSE and those who had not. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The overall response rate was 90.9%. Although 71.4% of the women knew what BSE was, only 33.1% had performed it. Majority of the participants considered that BSE is important in the early detection of breast cancer. With 59.7% of the population having an adequate amount of knowledge, 87.2% had a positive attitude toward BSE. A medical background was found to be a significant predictor for adequate knowledge and a positive attitude toward BSE. Conclusion: Despite a positive attitude found among the population toward BSE, its knowledge and practice were inadequate. Educational interventions are required in Pakistan to encourage young women to perform BSE regularly so that breast abnormalities can be detected early on and mortalities can be minimized.
  12,361 1,083 4
The effect of educational workshop on emergency department nurses' self-efficacy in patient training
Hojjat Sheikhbardsiri, Syed Hossein Mousavi, Mohammad Mahdi Doustmohammadi, Masoumeh Karimi, Sahar Salahi
2019, 8:136 (29 July 2019)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_52_19  PMID:31463321
OBJECTIVE: Self-efficacy is an individual's self-perception of one's ability to perform competently and to achieve a task or goal effectively. In the nursing field, self-efficacy can be useful in predicting performance, job satisfaction, or well-being. Therefore, due to the importance of this issue, this study aimed to determine the effect of educational workshop on nurses' self-efficacy along with follow-up in patient training. METHODS: The study employed a single group quasi-experimental study with a pretest/posttest design and was conducted in one educational hospital supervised by the Kerman University of Medical Sciences in 2016. Nurses' self-efficacy was analyzed through a researcher-made questionnaire prior and after the workshop and along with the follow-up period (n = 20). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviation and analytic statistics such as Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, paired t-test, and ANOVA with P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: This study showed that 1 month after educational workshop, the score of self-efficacy dimensions increased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, results showed that after a 3-month follow-up period, self-efficacy score increased in comparison to preintervention self-efficacy score. Results showed that the total score means of self-efficacy before the workshop was 59.01 ± 14.91 while postworkshop, self-efficacy score means was 79.83 ± 11.90. CONCLUSION: The present research results presented that educational workshop may enhance self-efficacy among nurses. According to the obtained results, it is recommended that the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Training, in cooperation with nursing institutions responsible for nursing and medical in-service education adopt necessary measures to enhance self-efficacy among employees in addition to improving patient training condition at medical processes through similar workshops or conducting related studies.
  12,551 329 -
Learning challenges of nursing students in clinical environments: A qualitative study in Iran
Shahram Baraz, Robabeh Memarian, Zohreh Vanaki
2015, 4:52 (6 August 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.162345  PMID:26430679
Background: Clinical learning environment is a complex social entity. This environment is effective on the learning process of nursing students in the clinical area. However, learning in clinical environment has several benefits, but it can be challenging, unpredictable, stressful, and constantly changing. In attention to clinical experiences and factors contributing to the learning of these experiences can waste a great deal of time and energy, impose heavy financial burden on educational systems, cause mental, familial and educational problems for students, and compromise the quality of patient care. Therefore, this study was carried out with the goal of determining the learning challenges of nursing students in clinical environments in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study carried out in 2012-2013, 18 undergraduate nursing students were selected by using purposive sampling method from the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery of Tehran and Shahid Beheshti Universities. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The content analysis method was used to determine relevant themes. Results: Two themes were derived from the data analysis, which represented the students' clinical learning challenges. These two themes included insufficient qualification of nursing instructors and unsupportive learning environment. Conclusions: Identification of the students' clinical learning challenges and actions to remove or modify them will create more learning opportunities for the students, improve the achievement of educational goals, provide training to nursing students with the needed competencies to meet the complex demands of caring and for application of theories in practice, and improve the quality of healthcare services.
  10,568 1,604 22
Relationship between health literacy, health status, and healthy behaviors among older adults in Isfahan, Iran
Mahnoosh Reisi, Seyed Homamodin Javadzade, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Gholamreza Sharifirad, Fatemeh Radjati, Akbar Hasanzade
2012, 1:31 (27 August 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.100160  PMID:23555134
Background: Health literacy is a measure of an individual's ability to read, comprehend, and act on medical instructions. Limited health literacy can reduce the adults' ability to comprehend and use basic health-related materials, such as prescription, food labels, health education pamphlets, articles, appointment slips, and health insurance plans, which can affect their ability to take appropriate and timely health care action. Nowadays, low health literacy is considered a worldwide health threat. So, the purpose of this study was to assess health literacy level in older adults and to investigate the relationships between health literacy and health status, health care utilization, and health preventive behaviors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 354 older adults was conducted in Isfahan. The method of sampling was clustering. Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA). Data were collected using home interviewing. Health status was measured based on self-rated general health. Health care utilization was measured based on self-reported outpatient clinic visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations, and health preventive behaviors were measured based on self-reported preventive health services use. Results: Approximately 79.6% of adults were found to have inadequate health literacy. They tended to be older, had fewer years of schooling, lower household income, and were females. Inadequate health literacy was associated with poorer general health (P < 0.001). Health literacy level was negatively associated with outpatient visits (P = 0.003) and hospitalization (P = 0.01). No significant association was found between health literacy level and emergency room utilization. Self-reported lack of PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) test (P < 0.001) and fecal occult blood test (FOBT; P = 0.003) was higher among individuals with inadequate health literacy than those with adequate health literacy. No significant association was found between health literacy level and mammogram in the last 2 years. Conclusion: Low health literacy is more prevalent in older adults. It indicates the importance of health literacy issue in health promotion. So, with simple educational materials and effective interventions for low health literacy group, we can improve health promotion in the society and mitigate the adverse health effects of low health literacy.
  10,435 1,670 43
Exercise and academic performance among nursing and kinesiology students at US colleges
David Bellar, Lawrence W Judge, Jeffrey Petersen, Ann Bellar, Charity L Bryan
2014, 3:9 (21 February 2014)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.127560  PMID:24741649
Context: Lack of physical activity is a contributor to the obesity epidemic and is speculated to relate to reduced academic performance; however, this link has yet to be examined within the college population. Aims: The purpose of this study in a group of undergraduate students, was to determine if aerobic exercise activity was related to academic performance. Materials and Methods: The participants for this study included 740 students at multiple universities enrolled in nursing and kinesiology studies. The participants completed the Leisure and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Pearson's χ2 analysis revealed differences in grade point average with aerobic activity (χ2 = 44.29 , P ≤ 0.001) as well as a trend toward differences in grade point average with weightlifting activity (χ2 = 22.69, P = 0.61). Conclusions: Based on these findings it can be suggested that college students engage in greater aerobic exercise.
  10,979 1,105 13
Effective use of social media platforms for promotion of mental health awareness
K Latha, KS Meena, MR Pravitha, Madhuporna Dasgupta, SK Chaturvedi
2020, 9:124 (28 May 2020)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_90_20  
BACKGROUND: Social media platforms are progressively developing as a rich source of mass communication. Increasing mental health awareness with the help of social media can be a good initiative to reach out to a large number of people in a short time frame. This study was conducted to understand the usefulness of social media platforms for health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a qualitative study to evaluate the effectiveness of social media platforms in hosting health promotion campaigns in the field of mental health, which was observed over 5 months from May to September 2019 to reach more people for effective information dissemination. The campaigns were as follows (1) The Buddies for Suicide Prevention: an online campaign to create awareness about suicide prevention. The campaign included script writing, slogan writing, poster making, and short films making, organized for the general public who were interested to take part; (2) The #Iquitobacco was a 21-day campaign with an idea of tobacco cessation in the community, conducted among social media viewers who were willing to participate; and (3) #Migrainethepainfultruth was yet another campaign conducted among the social media viewers who were interested to participate. All the campaigns were conducted using two famous social media platforms commonly used by young adults. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and proportions were computed for the number of likes and shares. RESULTS: The Facebook and Instagram posts concerning all the campaigns brought about a considerable amount of reach to the targeted population. After the campaigns, the page reached to around 10.3 k people (both fans and nonfans). CONCLUSIONS: Use of social media to conduct mental health campaigns is an effective initiative as one can reach out to several people over a short time period. There is an increasing trend in the awareness of mental health with the effective use of digital media as a platform for disseminating information.
  9,307 1,480 4
Academic burnout as an educational complication and promotion barrier among undergraduate students: A cross-sectional study
Pardis Rahmatpour, Minoomitra Chehrzad, Atefeh Ghanbari, Seyyed-Reza Sadat-Ebrahimi
2019, 8:201 (24 October 2019)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_165_19  PMID:31807591
BACKGROUND: Academic burnout is a worldwide problem that troubles students at all academic levels. Despite the significant effects of this problem on students' mental health and academic achievements, yet, it has not been adequately studied in Iranian system of academic education. Therefore, we aimed to explore the incidence of academic burnout status and its associated factors among the students at Guilan University of Medical Sciences. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a number of 303 students at Guilan University of Medical Sciences during 2016. Study samples were selected through the stratified random sampling method, and a set of data including sociodemographic information, educational status, study habits, and burnout inventory status was collected for each sample. Items of burnout inventory status were based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics including t-test and linear regression. RESULTS: The students in our study reported a mean of 2.53 ± 0.7 for academic burnout score. Along with related factors of academic burnout, marital status (P = 0.029), grade point average (P = 0.002), being interested in field of study (P = 0.000), and study time (P = 0.000) were significantly associated with academic burnout of students. Furthermore, the incidence of academic burnout did not differ between male and female students. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the considerable prevalence of academic burnout among students of medical sciences, it is needed that policymakers implement more effective educational programs considering the associated factors of academic burnout.
  9,632 557 -
The effectiveness of nutrition education program based on health belief model compared with traditional training
Gholam Reza Sharifirad, Azar Tol, Siamak Mohebi, Mohammad Matlabi, Hossein Shahnazi, Marzieh Shahsiah
2013, 2:15 (31 March 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.112684  PMID:24083265
Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the effect of nutrition educational program based on HBM with traditional education recommended weight gain among pregnant women in Gonabad. Target population was pregnant women who were resided in Gonabad and went to urban health care centers for prenatal cares. Materials and Methods: 110 pregnant women (case group: 54, control group: 56) were selected who had come to this centers in the first stage of prenatal care (6th -10th week of pregnancy) in 1388 and were consequently classified in case and control group. There is no significant difference for age, education, number of parity, history of abortion and job between case and control groups. Results: There was no significant differences in nutritional behavior mean score before intervention in case (74.42 ± 12.78) and control (77.14 ± 15.35) groups (P value = 0.82, independent t- test); but after education, intervention was significant in nutritional behavior between two groups (P value = 0.01, independent t - test); Discussion: after intervention, there also was significant difference in HBM structures mean score in case group compare with control group and the highest rise in score was related to perceived benefits (15.13 increment).
  8,851 1,108 16
Effect of Health Belief Model based intervention on promoting nutritional behaviors about osteoporosis prevention among students of female middle schools in Isfahan, Iran
Mohtasham Ghaffari, Elaheh Tavassoli, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Akbar Hassanzadeh
2012, 1:14 (30 July 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.98572  PMID:23555117
Background: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by reduction of one mass, deterioration of bone structure, increasing bone fragility, and increasing fracture risk. Prevention of osteoporosis during childhood and adolescence is one of the most important issues in World Health Organization. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Health Belief Model based intervention on promoting nutritional behaviors about preventive osteoporosis among the second grade middle school girl students. Materials and Methods: This was an experimental intervention study, the research population being 130 students who were randomly divided into groups, experimental (66) and control (64). Before the educational program, Health Belief Model based standard questionnaire and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) questionnaire were filled up by both the groups. The standard questionnaire was completed three times (before, immediately, and 2 months after education) and FFQ questionnaire was completed two times (before and 2 months after education) by the students. After pre-test, four educational session classes in the experimental group were performed. Finally, data collected were analyzed by SPSS 18 computer software. Results: The result of this study showed a significant increase in the mean score of knowledge, perceived susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, barriers, as well as taking health action among girl students in the experimental group. Conclusion: The findings of the present study confirmed the practicability and effectiveness of the Health Belief Model based educational program in promoting nutritional behaviors about prevention of osteoporosis.
  8,673 1,176 15
Yoga improves attention and self-esteem in underprivileged girl student
Jaspal Kaur Sethi, HR Nagendra, Tikhe Sham Ganpat
2013, 2:55 (30 September 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.119043  PMID:24251291
Background: A student under optimal stress does bring out his or her best; however, extreme stress can result in mental health problems and deteriorates their academic performance. Students who esteem themselves low are most likely to engage in destructive and self-destructive behaviors. Moreover, excessive stress is harmful to academic performance and may lead to dropping out in student. Can Yoga be of benefit in students for improving their attention and self-esteem (SE)? Objective: To assess attention and SE in girls undergoing Integrated Yoga Module (IYM). Materials and Methods: Sixty low-income high school girls with 15.17 + 0.64 years of mean age participated in this single group pre-post study. The data was collected before and after 5 days of IYM. Statistical Analysis: Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data with the help of SPSS 16. Results: The data analysis showed 9.04% increase ( P = 0.001) in SE scores, whereas d2 test for attention revealed 10.12% increase ( P < 0.001) in total number of symbols processed scores and 44.73% decrease ( P < 0.001) in total number of errors. Conclusion: The present study suggests that of IYM can result in improvement of attention and SE among students and thereby enhancing their mental health and can help them in improving their academic achievement. Efforts aimed at reducing mental health problems among students may focus more on implementing effective and culturally acceptable interventions, such as Yoga, counseling, and social support. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
  9,007 759 19
Development and psychometric testing of the Adolescent Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire
Parvaneh Taymoori, Babak Moeini, David Lubans, Mitra Bharami
2012, 1:20 (31 July 2012)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.99221  PMID:23555123
Background: Lifestyle choices and individuals' behaviors have the potential to influence health and improve the quality of life. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and psychometrically test an instrument for measuring healthy lifestyle in Iranian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive literature review related to health-promoting lifestyles was used to identify potential scale items. Data were collected from 797 school students. Construct validity was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to cross-validate. Results: Nine factors emerged that explained 59.8% of the variance in the 43 items. Cronbach's α coefficient Healthy Lifestyle Questionnaire was r=0.82. After the model was modified, the fit indices indicated that the data were an adequate-to-good fit to the proposed models. Conclusions: The current study provides some support to the internal and external validity of the healthy lifestyles questionnaire for Iranian adolescents.
  7,699 1,086 11
REVIEW ARTICLES
Telemedicine in India: A tool for transforming health care in the era of COVID-19 pandemic
Neema Agarwal, Payal Jain, Rambha Pathak, Rakesh Gupta
2020, 9:190 (28 July 2020)
DOI:10.4103/jehp.jehp_472_20  
Although telemedicine has been used spottily in Indian health care so far, the 2020 Covid-19 pandemic provided the nation's health systems an unprecedented opportunity to make a concerted effort to increase access and coverage. Health-care providers can incorporate telemedicine systems to reduce doctor-patient visits and help in breaking the chain of transmission of infections. Anticipating the increased need of telemedicine by health-care providers, the Medical Council of India released practice guidelines in March 2020. In this article, the literature pertinent to telemedicine and its applications with special reference to recently released practice guidelines were reviewed and summarized in a historical and current context. Telemedicine is bound to grow and be adopted by more health-care practitioners and patients in a wide variety of forms due to ease and availability. At the same time, it cannot replace in-person consultation or emergency medicine.
  7,688 774 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The effect of three ergonomics interventions on body posture and musculoskeletal disorders among stuff of Isfahan Province Gas Company
Ehsanollah Habibi, Shiva Soury
2015, 4:65 (6 August 2015)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.162386  PMID:26430692
Background: Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) is high among computer users. The study investigates the effect of three ergonomic interventions on the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders among the staff of Isfahan Province Gas Company, including training, sport, and installation of software. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in the summer of 2013 on 75 (52 men, 23 women) Isfahan Province Gas Company employees in three phases (phase 1 : e0 valuation of present situation, phase 2 : p0 erforming interventions, and phase 3 : r0 e-evaluation). Participants were divided into three groups (training, exercise, and software). The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) were used. Data collected were analyzed using SPSS software and McNemar test, t-test, and Chi-square test. Results: Based on the evaluations, there was a decrease in musculoskeletal symptoms among the trained group participants after they received the training. McNemar test showed that the lower rate of pain in low back, neck, knee, and wrist was significant (P < 0.05). The results obtained from the RULA method for evaluation of posture showed an average 25 points decrease in the right side of the body and 20 points decrease in the left side of the body in the group subjected to training. Based on t-test, the decrease was significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that majority of the participants accepted interventions, which indicates that most of the people were unsatisfied with the work settings and seeking improvement at the workplace. Overall, the findings show that training, chair adjustment, and arrangement in workplace could decrease musculoskeletal disorders.
  7,358 757 12
Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40-45 years
Ensieh Noroozi, Nayereh Kasiri Dolatabadi, Ahmad Ali Eslami, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Soheila Davari
2013, 2:25 (30 May 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.112701  PMID:24083275
Background: Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40-45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. Findings: The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Conclusion: Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years.
  7,075 902 15
Quality evaluation of portal sites in health system, as a tool for education and learning
Sayed Mehdi Hejazi, Sima Sarmadi
2013, 2:56 (30 October 2013)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.120845  PMID:24520554
Background: The main objective of creating a portal is to make information service available for users who need them for performance of duties and responsibilities regardless of the sources. This article is attempted to consider the parameters that can evaluate these sites since these criteria can be effective in designing and implementing such portals. On the other hand, portal sites in health systems of every country make it possible for leaders, policy makers, and directors to system education as a tool for new learning technologies. One of the main decisions each manager has to make is precise selection of appropriate portal sites. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive and qualitative study. The research sample was 53 computer professional working in the area of computer programming and design. In the first part of the study a questionnaire was send to the participants and in the second part of the study based on their response to the questionnaire the participant was interviewed and the main themes of the studies were formulated. The validity and the reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed. Results: The study results were summarized in 10 themes and 50 sub-categories. The main themes included were portal requirements, security, management, and efficiency, user friendliness, built-in applications, portal flexibility, interoperability, and support systems. Conclusion: Portal sites in any education systems make it possible for health system leaders and policy makers to manage their organization information system efficiently and effectively. One of the major decisions each manager has to make is precise selection of an appropriate portal sites design and development. The themes and sub-categories of this study could help health system managers and policy makers and information technology professionals to make appropriate decisions regarding portal design and development.
  7,515 359 -
The barriers to the application of the research findings from the nurses' perspective: A case study in a teaching hospital
Mohammadkarim Bahadori, Mehdi Raadabadi, Ramin Ravangard, Behzad Mahaki
2016, 5:14 (23 June 2016)
DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.184553  PMID:27500167
Background: The application of the nursing research findings is one of the most important indicators of development in the nursing profession, which leads to providing efficient and effective patient care and improving the quality of nursing care. According the result of some studies, transferring the evidence-based findings to the nurses' practice and education in the world has been slow and sometimes unsuccessful. This study aimed to investigate the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the nurses' perspective. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on a sample of 210 nurses in a teaching hospital in Tehran in 2013. The data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire consisted of two parts, including items about nurses' demographic characteristics and 30 items to identify the most important barriers to the application of research findings from the studied nurses' perspective. Results:“The lack of sufficient time for reading the studies,” “the lack of sufficient time to implement the new ideas,” “the lack of adequate facilities to implement the ideas,” “nurses' little interest in conducting studies,” and “the lack of authority to change the methods and patterns of care” with, respectively, 85%, 84.6%, 83.8%, 83.4%, and 80.5% agreement with the existence of barriers were the most barriers to application of research findings from the studied nurses' perspective. Conclusion: The lack of time was the most important barrier to the use of research findings from the perspective of studied nurses. Therefore, some effective strategies should be used by hospital managers and health policy makers to overcome this barrier. Some of these strategies can be employing new personnel and hiring skilled and efficient human resources in order to decrease the workload of nurses, organizing the nurses' work shifts, providing right balance between patients and nurses in the wards, etc.
  7,039 819 13
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