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LETTER TO EDITOR
J Edu Health Promot 2022,  11:352

Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in hospitals in Sirjan at 2020


1 Department of Medical Emergencies, School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, IR Iran
2 Department of Public Health, Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan, IR Iran

Date of Submission10-May-2021
Date of Acceptance18-Jul-2022
Date of Web Publication31-Oct-2022

Correspondence Address:
Hamid Jafari
Department of Medical Emergencies, School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan School of Medical Sciences, Sirjan; Ebnesina Avenue, Sirjan
IR Iran
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_652_21

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How to cite this article:
Khajoei R, Jafari H, Balvardi M. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in hospitals in Sirjan at 2020. J Edu Health Promot 2022;11:352

How to cite this URL:
Khajoei R, Jafari H, Balvardi M. Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 in hospitals in Sirjan at 2020. J Edu Health Promot [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 6];11:352. Available from: https://www.jehp.net//text.asp?2022/11/1/352/360029



Dear Editor,

Given the necessity of identifying factors effective in mortality caused by COVID-19 to better control these factors, as well as prevention of death, we aimed to investigate epidemiologic and clinical characteristics in patients with COVID-19 in hospitals of Sirjan in 2020.

Patients with the acute respiratory disease of COVID-19 who were referred to Imam Reza Hospital and Dr. Gharazi Hospital were assessed. Patients with a positive COVID-19 test (positive RT-PCR) who were discharged from the hospital or expired were enrolled in the study. In total, 2117 patients enrolled in the study.

Epidemiologic and clinical information on patients on the MCMC system of Sirjan Medical Sciences faculty was extracted; finally, clinical characteristics were identified in patients with COVID-19. To gather data, a standard form was used, and a modified version of the form was a recording of the sample of the consortium of emerging infectious disease and acute respiratory diseases of the WHO.

The results of the current study showed that the mortality rate among patients hospitalized was 6.1%. Only 0.9% of patients were reinfected by COVID-19. 84.8% of those hospitalized were diagnosed with symptoms in their chest CT scan, and 89.3% of those who expired were with symptoms in chest CT scan; lesser than 1% of those who expired did not show symptoms in CT scan; in the rest of the patients, T scan was not performed. Out of 172 patients admitted to ICU, 69 (40%) expired. Forty patients (1.9%) had a history of cigarette use, but 2.3% of those who expired had a history of cigarette use. One hundred twenty-two patients (5.8%) had a history of opium use, and out of 131 patients who expired, 14 (10.7%) had a history of opium use.

The results showed that 29 patients hospitalized (1.4%) had a psychological disease, whereas four patients (3.1%) of the patients who expired had mental diseases. Eighteen patients hospitalized (0.9%) were with carcinoma, whereas five patients (3.8%) who had died developed such complications. The results showed that 1197 patients hospitalized (56.5%) had SPO2 lesser than 93%, whereas the prevalence of this index in those who expired was 83.2% and among 131 patients who expired, 109 individuals had SPO2 lesser than 93% [Table 1].
Table 1: Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings of patients

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Given the findings of the current study, the mortality rate of patients with COVID-19 was 6.1%, which was in line with global reports. In one study in Italy, the mortality rate was reported as 702%.[1] However, some studies reported lesser rates.[2],[3]

According to the findings of the current study, gender has a slight effect on hospitalization and mortality, but according to one case study which evaluated various countries regarding differences in women and men during the pandemics of COVID-19, in all studied countries, the rate of confirmed infection and also mortality rate was higher in men.[4]

According to the findings, lesser than 1% of hospitalized patients were reinfected by COVID-19. This finding is in line with the findings of other studies. Several studies investigated reinfection by COVID-19 and described the rate of reinfection by this disease very slightly.[5] Some studies reject reinfection by a specific type of virus, and they stated that those who were reinfected by COVID-19 probably were infected by a new mutated type of virus.[6]

According to the current study, cigarette and drug use increases the severity of disease in users, but its effect was not significant. Current epidemiologic findings show that active smoking is associated with an increase in disease severity and death in patients due to COVID-19 hospitalized in hospitals.[7] The pieces of evidence showed that smoking is effective in causing cytokine storms.[8]


  Conclusions Top


The current study showed that the rate of mortality among patients hospitalized in the hospitals of Sirjan was 6.1%. High blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, heart coronary artery diseases, and chronic obstructive respiratory diseases were the most common underlying diseases among patients hospitalized and expired in the hospitals of Sirjan.

Acknowledgments

This article was the result of a research plan approved by the Research Council of Sirjan University of Medical Sciences. Hereby, the authors express their gratitude and appreciation.

Financial support and sponsorship

This work was supported by the financial support of the Vice Chancellor for Research and Technology of Sirjan University of Medical Sciences.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Onder G, Rezza G, Brusaferro S. Case-fatality rate and characteristics of patients dying in relation to COVID-19 in Italy. JAMA 2020;323:1775-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Ruan S. Likelihood of survival of coronavirus disease 2019. Lancet Infect Dis 2020;20:630-1.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Li Lq, Huang T, Wang Yq, Wang Zp, Liang Y, Huang Tb, et al. COVID-19 patients' clinical characteristics, discharge rate, and fatality rate of meta-analysis. J Med Virol 2020;92:577-83.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Gebhard C, Regitz-Zagrosek V, Neuhauser HK, Morgan R, Klein SL. Impact of sex and gender on COVID-19 outcomes in Europe. Biol Sex Differ 2020;11:1-13.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kirkcaldy RD, King BA, Brooks JT. COVID-19 and postinfection immunity: Limited evidence, many remaining questions. JAMA 2020;323:2245-6.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Roy S. COVID-19 reinfection: Myth or truth? SN Compr Clin Med 2020;2:710-3.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Kashyap VK, Dhasmana A, Massey A, Kotnala S, Zafar N, Jaggi M, et al. Smoking and COVID-19: Adding fuel to the flame. Int J Mol Sci 2020;21:6581.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Kaur G, Lungarella G, Rahman I. SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 susceptibility and lung inflammatory storm by smoking and vaping. J Inflamm 2020;17:21.  Back to cited text no. 8
    



 
 
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