Collaboration between the government and nongovernmental organizations in providing health-care services: A systematic review of challenges
Mohanna Rajabi, Parvin Ebrahimi, Aidin Aryankhesal
Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
|Date of Submission||27-Sep-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||28-Nov-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Jun-2021|
Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
BACKGROUND: Given the expanding range of health influencing factors, increasing expectations from the health systems, and general challenges such as insufficient resources, the health services needed by people cannot be provided completely by the governments alone. Therefore, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)-government collaboration is considered a common approach in health-care provision for different communities. Since the NGO-government collaboration is complicated and usually influenced by many challenges and issues, the present study was conducted to identify collaboration challenges between the government and NGOs in providing health-care services.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a systematic review method and searching in ISI Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Embase databases, using related keyword/terms, between March 2020 and June 2020, studies on NGO-government collaboration in the health area were collected without time limitation. After completing the article selection process, those articles that consistent with the research purpose were chosen for the final analysis.
RESULTS: From 4236 initially collected studies, 16 studies were chosen for the final analysis. Based on the content analysis of the selected articles, 70 challenges were identified in the NGO-government collaboration to provide health-care services. These challenges were divided into five main themes: structural issues, process issues, issues related to roles and responsibilities, trust and communications issues, and control and power relation issues and 11 subthemes.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides significant challenges by NGO-government collaboration in providing health-care services. Awareness of these challenges plays an important role in promoting such collaborations and enables these organizations to highly exploit the strengths of each other, resulting in a collaboration with win–win situation.
Keywords: Challenge, government, health system, intersectoral collaboration, nongovernmental organization, public–private partnership
|How to cite this article:|
Rajabi M, Ebrahimi P, Aryankhesal A. Collaboration between the government and nongovernmental organizations in providing health-care services: A systematic review of challenges. J Edu Health Promot 2021;10:242
|How to cite this URL:|
Rajabi M, Ebrahimi P, Aryankhesal A. Collaboration between the government and nongovernmental organizations in providing health-care services: A systematic review of challenges. J Edu Health Promot [serial online] 2021 [cited 2023 May 30];10:242. Available from: https://www.jehp.net//text.asp?2021/10/1/242/320285
| Introduction|| |
Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are active in different fields to achieve cultural, social, charitable, specialized, and industrial objectives., With a strong sense of responsibility for community issues, they attempt to assist in problem resolution and promotion the society.,,,,, Being considered as a social capital to governments, NGOs could utilize their full capacities to collaborate with the public sector, and to provide different groups of society with the services required in situations, where governments are not able to meet the needs of all society groups due to technical or administrative incompetence, or more importantly, lack of financial resources.,,,
NGOs operating in 12 areas of activity and due to the exclusive nature of activities performed in the health sector, they have long focused on this significant area.,,,, and due to the exclusive nature of activities performed in the health sector, they have long focused on this significant area.,,,, Differences observed between NGOs and government agencies that are active in the health sector should be considered in addition to the inherent characteristics and capabilities of NGOs, including smaller sizes, simpler management processes, higher levels of practical freedom, and lower costs. Moreover, they are less influenced by the political decisions of the governments, show higher operational flexibility, are more committed to implementing programs and achieving defined goals, and are more accountable to various needs of communities.,,,, Altogether, these characteristics have rendered NGOs to be always in the focus of planners and decision-makers as invaluable tools to promote the health of society.
Given the expanding range of health influencing factors, increasing expectations from the health systems, and their general challenges, such as insufficient human and financial resources, the health and medical services needed by people cannot be provided completely by the governments alone.,,,,, Therefore, the collaboration of NGOs with the public sector is inevitable in health-care provision activities for different communities, particularly the poor people, specific vulnerable groups, suburban populations, disabled individuals, and the elderly., Several studies have acknowledged the positive effect of NGO-government collaboration on the health enhancement and the promotion of programs developed for controlling and preventing diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria in different communities.,,,,,,,,
Concerning the health system, positive results of NGO-government collaboration include improvements of the health indicators in communities, increased financial resources of the health sector, and strengthening local governments' capacities to provide health-care services.,, However, it should be noted that NGO-government collaboration is a complicated issue, as different organizations, each with specific characteristics, are involved in this process. Besides, individual organization focus on their own set of goals, priorities, and plans and consequently, the collaboration process will be associated with different problems due to incompatible interest and goals.
Since NGO-government collaboration is now considered a common approach to provide health-care services and resolve health issues,, unawareness of the collaboration challenges could result in loss of opportunities for their effective collaboration. Customized to different countries and their specific circumstances, previous studies have discretely examined various aspects of NGO-government collaboration in providing health care. Thus, the present study aimed to comprehensively investigate the most important challenges and problems faced by NGO-government collaboration in providing health-care services to pave the ground for improved collaboration within the health systems. Hopefully, the findings of the present study can assist policymakers and planners in resolving the problems and enhancing the effectiveness of the collaboration while improving the mutual viewpoints of the public sector and NGOs and the collaboration process itself.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Employing a systematic review method, the present study was conducted to identify the challenges faced by NGO-government collaboration in providing health-care services between March 2020 and June 2020.
Search strategy and data source
In databases including ISI Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Embase, related studies on NGO-government collaboration in the health area were collected without time limitation (until May 2020). Using AND/OR, search keywords/terms were combined and written in the search box of each database [Table 1]. After completion of searching in each database, a list of collected studies was created using EndNoteX8 software (Clarivate, Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States) and relevant studies were chosen through the list.
English original research accessible in full text, mentioning the challenges, weaknesses, and barriers to NGO-government collaboration in providing health-care services was included in the study.
At the beginning of the systematic review, books, dissertations, letters to the editor, nonjournal articles, and reports were excluded from the study. During the process, non-English papers, review articles, articles not accessible in full text, articles outside the health sector, and articles that not mentioning government-NGO collaboration in health-care services provision were omitted from the final analysis.
The two researchers independently examined the articles obtained through searching in databases and resolved their disagreements through discussions or consulting a third researcher. After the collection of articles from databases and exclusion of irrelevant and duplicated papers, in the first stage, the title, then the abstract, and in the third stage, the full text of the articles were examined according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. At each stage, based on eligibility criteria, nonrelevant studies were excluded and articles consistent with the research purpose were chosen for the next stage. Eventually, after completing the articles selection process, quality assessment, and review of reference lists of selected articles, final articles were selected. Information of the final articles (authors, location, year of publication, participants and their numbers, type of study, data collection method, data analysis method, and results related to the purpose of this study) was extracted using a researcher-made checklist. The obtained information was categorized, summarized, and then analyzed employing a content analysis approach.
Researchers assessed selected articles according to the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (CASP) checklist. In addition to studies not consistent with the purpose of our study, those having a low quality were also excluded. According to the CASP checklist, articles were classified into three categories of low-quality (assessment score <7), medium-quality (assessment score 7–8), and high-quality (assessments score 9–10) and low-quality articles were excluded.
This study was done based on the Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis standard.
| Results|| |
Database search results
In the present systematic review, 424 nonrelevant and 1286 repeated articles were excluded from 4236 initially collected studies. Then, the titles and abstracts of the remaining studies were examined to omit nonrelevant studies. Out of 99 remaining articles for full-text review, 16 studies were eventually chosen for the final analysis based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, quality assessment, and exploring the references [Table 2]. [Figure 1] represents the different steps of the selection process. The final studies were qualitative (13 studies) and mixed-method (three studies) designs. Most of them were published between 2011 and 2018 and conducted in developing and less-developed countries. In [Figure 2], the frequency distributions of the final studies are shown based on their years of publication. [Figure 3] summarizes the percentage contribution of the identified issues to the emergence of challenges in the NGO-government collaboration.
|Figure 2: Frequency distribution of final studies about challenges of government-NGO collaboration in health by year of publication|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Percentage contribution of challenges in government-NGO collaboration in health|
Click here to view
Based on the content analysis of the selected articles, 70 challenges were identified in the NGO-government collaboration to provide health-care services. Challenges were divided into five main themes: structural issues, process issues, as well as issues related to roles and responsibilities, trust and communications issues, and control and power relations issues and 11 subthemes. [Table 3] shows the categorization of the main and subthemes of challenges.
|Table 3: Challenges of the government-nongovernmental organization collaboration in providing health-care services|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
In the present study, the challenges between the government and NGOs in collaboration for providing health-care services were examined and divided into five main areas.
According to our findings, structural issues were considered among the main challenges of NGO-government collaborations. Varied goals, priorities, and interests lead to disrupted processes of collaboration between the public sector and NGOs. Involved organizations refuse to easily accept the plans and priorities of the other party and resist the collaboration.,,,, For instance, despite the preference of Sudan government for the participation of NGOs in establishing health-care facilities, NGOs tend to directly provide health services.
On the other hand, different goals and priorities may form competitive relationships between government and NGOs, negatively influencing the effectiveness of their cooperation., As Pick points out, NGOs often operate in the areas not prioritized by the governments. Moreover, the government and NGOs avoid collaboration opportunities due to the contradictory relationships in many countries.
In addition, differences between governments and NGOs should also be considered in collaborative plans. NGO-government collaboration in providing health care is influenced by the instability and high rate of personnel turnover, as well as the heterogeneity of size, nature, characteristics, and levels of commitment to society in NGOs.,, As Kelly suggests, a high rate of personnel turnover is an operational challenge for NGOs in developing countries.
Featuring different experiences and capacities, NGOs possess higher capacities to recognize the main issues and priorities of society than the governments. Furthermore, NGOs establish better communications with the communities to discover their needs and priorities, and society members easily accept solutions offered by NGOs.,,,,
These issues include administrative bureaucracy governing the public sector, lack of an independent coordinating organization, and poor NGO-government collaboration.
The incentives of NGOs to collaborate in governmental health programs are diminished by the bureaucracy governing the public sector, the time consuming and complex nature of administrative processes, and the multiplicity of governmental decision-making centers.,,,, In Bangladesh, concern about being involved in the bureaucracy and control governing the public sector prevent NGOs from collaboration in health programs, even in practical cases where they can collaborate in developing health policies.
For reasone as lacking a defined framework for NGO-government collaboration in the health sector, the complex processes, and unpredictable future of collaboration between the government agencies and NGOs, there is an increasing need to establish an independent organization to coordinate activities and programs between the government and NGOs in collaboratively providing health-care services.,,,,,, Hou believes that the formation of an independent coordinating organization is an important strategy for the success of communication mechanisms between the government and the nonprofit sector when making emergency decisions in situations of geographical crises.
Despite the current consensus on the necessity of NGO-government collaboration, the government practically provides NGOs with limited opportunities. The government sector views NGOs as saviors not partners, and as providers not decision-makers, and expects NGOs to enforce their orders. Accordingly, NGOs are not associated with different steps of health programs, particularly the planning process.,,, Based on a study by Kelly, lack of governmental supports was considered to be an important issue for effectively implement AIDS prevention programs from the perspectives of NGOs.
Issues related to roles and responsibilities
Undefined roles and responsibilities and lack of transparency and unaccountability of NGOs are important issues in NGO-government collaboration to provide health care. The ambiguity and unawareness of roles and responsibilities make both the parties operate in collaborative activities and programs without considering the tasks and limitations of the other party, which also leads to an activity overlap in some cases.,,,,
Obviously, the precise definition and increased awareness of the roles and responsibilities of both the parties will effectively influence the reduction of tensions and maintaining integrity and unity in health programs. Razavi suggests that presenting a clear and precise definition of roles in the process of determining health priorities will reduce disagreements while decreasing the contrast between stakeholders.
The government agencies believe that NGOs do not view them as their true collaborators and exhibit insufficient accountability on their activities. Lack of transparency, particularly in financial and management performance, is another complaint on NGOs' actions.,
Since there is not a coherent information and communication system between the public sector and NGOs, the performance of NGOs is not transparent to the government and society.,,, Rached emphasizes transparency, accountability, and mutual respect as important factors in explaining the principles governing the collaboration between the World Health Organization (WHO) and nongovernmental players.
Issues related to trust and communications
Communication and trust form the basis of challenges in the NGO-government collaboration to provide health care. The absence of effective communication channels between NGOs and government agencies limits communications and information exchange between these organizations, leading to mutual distrust mainly shown by the governmental agencies.,,,,,,,
According to a common belief in the public sector, collaborative actions with NGOs in providing health services result in a weakened governmental authority and a distrust of society toward the public sector. On the other side, NGOs distrust the government and find themselves exploited as a tool by governments through restricting their role in the implementation of programs and preventing them from participating in planning and decision-making.,, Similarly, the reluctance and distrust of the public sector to collaborate with NGOs are reported by Roche to be among the challenges of their collaboration in Guatemala, resulting in the ineffective implementation of the referral system and reduced continuity of care services.
The pessimistic, negative view of the public sector toward NGOs is another challenge. Governments believe that NGOs are less active entities, with a higher interest in chanting slogans than acting, and inattentive to performance transparency. Moreover, NGOs are seen being overwhelmed by their own issues, ignorant of the public sector constraints, overly critical of governmental policies, and unaware of major development challenges.,
The public sector, therefor, does not consider decision-making role for NGOs and provides them with limited opportunities for collaboration. Alam considers strict contracts, negative contradictory views mutually developed between NGOs and governments, undefined roles, and the distrust of public sector employees to the capacity, commitment, and honesty of NGOs to be the challenges of the relationship between the public sector and NGOs in Bangladesh.
Issues related to control and power relations
NGOs are considered weak parties in the balance of power between them and governments. There are cases where the government exploits its power as the budget provider to determine the implementation and changes in programs without consulting with NGOs, thereby limiting the effective participation of NGOs in the health sector., Mclaughlin points out that the subordinated position of NGOs in the collaborative relationship with the government negatively influences their autonomy, identity, and effectiveness.
From the NGOs' viewpoints, increased interaction and collaboration with the government potentiates governmental control, leading to reduced autonomy and effectiveness of NGOs in society.,,, NGOs believe that the excessive control imposed on their activities by the public sector will result in deviation from their main goals and facing them with many obstacles. According to Unnithan study, NGOs believe that working with the government inhibits their independence and effectiveness in implementing the NRHM program.
Finally, it is worth noting that the challenges of NGO-government collaboration in providing health-care services should not be viewed independently. As these issues are interconnected, the emergence of an issue is followed by other numerous problems. Alternatively, efforts to resolve a problem will prevent the occurrence of other ones. Thus, it should be borne in mind that resolving these issues requires a comprehensive systematic perspective.
This study, for the first time, summarizes the challenges of collaboration between the government and NGOs in providing health-care services as a systematic review. Since the results of this review are based on the views of different individuals in both government and NGOs, it provides a comprehensive and complete overview of the challenges to the audiences.
The most important limitation of this study was the use of full-text articles in English, preventing the use of papers in other languages or conference papers. Furthermore, most of the included studies in this review were in less developed or developing countries, all of which affect the generalizability of the results of this study.
| Conclusion|| |
The NGO-government collaboration in the health area, as a common approach, is associated with inevitable challenges and issues that threaten the effectiveness of collaborative activities. Awareness of these challenges and issues will help managers, planners, and policymakers in government agencies and NGOs to try to promoting intersectoral collaboration using a systematic perspective. Considering these challenges and necessary efforts to eliminate and minimize their effects on the NGO-government collaboration in the health area is a preventive action that has a significant role in the advancement and improvement of such collaborations. Effective NGO-government collaboration in the health area can be assisting in the development of the health systems. Furthermore creates opportunities for health systems to make use of the hidden potentials of NGOs more than before.
This study was a part of a PhD thesis entitled “Developing a model for partnership of nongovernmental organizations in Iran's health system” and supported by Iran University of Medical Sciences (grant No: IR.IUMS.REC.1397.1330).
Financial support and sponsorship
This study was financially supported by Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Werker E, Ahmed FZ. What do nongovernmental organizations do?. J Econ Perspect 2008;22:73-92.
Damari B, Heidarnia M, Rahbari M. Role and performance of Iranian NGOs in community health promotion. Payesh 2014;13:541-50.
Shandra JM, Shandra CL, London B. Do non-governmental organizations impact health? A cross-national analysis of infant mortality. Int J Comp Soc 2010;51:137-64.
Thara R, Patel V. Role of non-governmental organizations in mental health in India. Indian J Psychiatry 2010;52:S389-95.
] [Full text]
Delisle H, Roberts JH, Munro M, Jones L, Gyorkos TW. The role of NGOs in global health research for development. Health Res Policy Syst 2005;3:3.
Nikkhah HA, Redzuan MB. The role of NGOs in promoting empowerment for sustainable community development. J Hum Ecol 2010;30:85-92.
Ghorbanian H, Haratiannejadi M. The right of diseases and the role of governmental and private departments. Med Law J 2007;1:11-41.
Solana EF. Public private not-for-profit partnerships: Delivering public services to developing countries. Procedia Eng 2014;78:259-64.
Das A, Friedman J, Kandpal E. Does involvement of local NGOs enhance public service delivery? Cautionary evidence from a malaria prevention program in India. Health Econ 2018;27:172-88
Rouhi N, Gorji HA, Maleki M. Nongovernmental organizations coordination models in natural hazards: A systematic review. J Educ Health Promot 2019;8:44.
Piotrowicz M, Cianciara D. The role of non-governmental organizations in the social and the health system. Przegl Epidemiol 2013;67:69-74, 151-5.
Smith K. Non-governmental organizations in the health field: Collaboration, integration and contrasting aims. Soc Sci Med 1989;29:395-402.
Galway LP, Corbett KK, Zeng L. Where are the NGOs and why? The distribution of health and development NGOs in bolivia. Global Health 2012;8:38.
Nathan S, Rotem A, Ritchie J. Closing the gap: Building the capacity of non-government organizations as advocates for health equity. Health Promot Int 2002;17:69-78.
Okma KG, Kay A, Hockenberry S, Liu J, Watkins S. The changing role of health-oriented international organizations and nongovernmental organizations. Int J Health Plann Manage 2016;31:488-510.
Damari B. Role and share of Iranian governmental organizations in public's health. Payesh 2015;14:511-21.
Bano M. Partnerships and the good-governance agenda: Improving service delivery through state–NGO collaborations. Voluntas: Int J Voluntary Nonprofit Organ 2019;30:1270-83.
Alonazi WB. Exploring shared risks through public-private partnerships in public health programs: A mixed method. BMC Public Health 2017;17:571.
Sabaghpoor F, Kohan S, Aghdak P, Beigi M. Investigating the service provision challenges by healthcare providers in selected comprehensive health centers. J Educ Health Promot 2019;8:185.
Barr DA. Ethics in public health research: A research protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of public-private partnerships as a means to improve health and welfare systems worldwide. Am J Public Health 2007;97:19-25.
Buse K, Waxman A. Public-private health partnerships: A strategy for WHO. Bull World Health Organ 2001;79:748-54.
Wamai RG. Reforming Health Systems: The Role of NGOs in Decentralization-Lessons from Kenya and Ethiopia. Boston, USA: Harvard School of Public Health; 2008.
Gulzar L, Henry B. Interorganizational collaboration for health care between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in pakistan. Soc Sci Med 2005;61:1930-43.
Akukwe C. The growing influence of non governmental organisations (NGOs) in international health: Challenges and opportunities. J R Soc Health 1998;118:107-15.
World Health Organization. Strategic Alliances: The Role of Civil Society in Health. World Health Organization; 2001.
Njau RJ, Mosha FW, De Savigny D. Case studies in public-private-partnership in health with the focus of enhancing the accessibility of health interventions. Tanzan J Health Res 2009;11:235-49.
Aldaba FT. Philippine NGOs and multistakeholder partnerships: Three case studies. Voluntas: Int J Voluntary Nonprofit Organ 2002;13:179-92.
Hushie M. Public-non-governmental organisation partnerships for health: An exploratory study with case studies from recent ghanaian experience. BMC Public Health 2016;16:963.
Mercer MA, Liskin L, Scott SJ. The role of non-governmental organizations in the global response to AIDS. AIDS Care 1991;3:265-70.
Uwimana J, Zarowsky C, Hausler H, Jackson D. Engagement of non-government organisations and community care workers in collaborative TB/HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in south africa: Opportunities and challenges. BMC Health Serv Res 2012;12:233.
Numeh D, Ejike F. The role of NGOs in HIV/AIDS prevention in Nigeria. Dialect Anthropol 2004;28:339-52.
Dholakia YN. TB/HIV coordination through public private partnership: Lessons from the field. Indian J Tuberc 2013;60:23-7.
Ullah ZA, Newell JN, Ahmed JU, Hyder MK, Islam A. Government-NGO collaboration: The case of tuberculosis control in Bangladesh. Health Policy Plan 2006;21:143-55.
Alam MS, Kabir MM, Hossain MS, Naher S, Ferdous NE, Khan WA, et al.
Reduction in malaria prevalence and increase in malaria awareness in endemic districts of bangladesh. Malar J 2016;15:552.
Pfeiffer J. International NGOs and primary health care in mozambique: The need for a new model of collaboration. Soc Sci Med 2003;56:725-38.
World Health Organization. WHO and Civil Society: Linking for Better Health. World Health Organization; 2002.
Piotrowicz M, Cianciara D. Associations and foundations in the field of health care and their role in the health system of poland. Przegl Epidemiol 2013;67:63-8, 145-9.
Aryankhesal A, Mohammadibakhsh R, Hamidi Y, Alidoost S, Behzadifar M, Sohrabi R, et al.
Interventions on reducing burnout in physicians and nurses: A systematic review. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2019;33:77.
Eftekhari MB, Mirabzadeh A, Forouzan AS, Dejman M, Afzali HM, Djalalinia S, et al.
A qualitative study of community-based health programs in iran: An experience of participation in I.R. Iran. Int J Prev Med 2014;5:679-86.
Biermann O, Eckhardt M, Carlfjord S, Falk M, Forsberg BC. Collaboration between non-governmental organizations and public services in health-a qualitative case study from rural ecuador. Glob Health Action 2016;9:32237.
Brooke-Sumner C, Lund C, Petersen I. Bridging the gap: Investigating challenges and way forward for intersectoral provision of psychosocial rehabilitation in south africa. Int J Ment Health Syst 2016;10:21.
Bwimana A. Heath sector network governance and state-building in south kivu, democratic republic of congo. Health Policy Plan 2017;32:1476-83.
Dawad S, Jobson G. Community-based rehabilitation programme as a model for task-shifting. Disabil Rehabil 2011;33:1997-2005.
Ejaz I, Shaikh BT, Rizvi N. NGOs and government partnership for health systems strengthening: A qualitative study presenting viewpoints of government, NGOs and donors in pakistan. BMC Health Serv Res 2011;11:122.
Gómez-Jauregui J. The feasibility of government partnerships with NGOs in the reproductive health field in mexico. Reprod Health Matters 2004;12:42-55.
Heo HH, Jeong W, Che XH, Chung H. A stakeholder analysis of community-led collaboration to reduce health inequity in a deprived neighbourhood in south korea. Glob Health Promot 2020;27:35-44.
Mazzeo J, Makonese L. Experiences of collaboration, coordination and efficiency in the delivery of HIV/AIDS home-based care in zimbabwe. Afr J AIDS Res 2009;8:443-53.
Scott K, George AS, Harvey SA, Mondal Sh, Patel G, Vr R, et al
. Government helper and citizen advocate? A case study of the multiple roles and pressures facing a nongovernmental organization contracted by government to strengthen community health in Northern India. Int J Health Plann Manage 2018;33:391-404.
Spicer N, Harmer A, Aleshkina J, Bogdan D, Chkhatarashvili K, Murzalieva G, et al.
Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments. Soc Sci Med 2011;73:1748-55.
Srivastava A, Bhattacharyya S, Gautham M, Schellenberg J, Avan BI. Linkages between public and non-government sectors in healthcare: A case study from uttar pradesh, india. Glob Public Health 2016;11:1216-30.
Wandwalo E, Kapalata N, Tarimo E, Corrigan CB, Morkve O. Collaboration between the national tuberculosis programme and a non governmental organisation in TB/HIV care at a district level: Experience from tanzania. Afr Health Sci 2004;4:109-14.
Yagub A. Collaboration between government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in delivering curative health services in north darfur state, sudan- a national report. Iran J Public Health 2014;43:561-71.
Pick S, Givaudan M, Reich MR. NGO-government partnerships for scaling up: Sexuality education in Mexico. Dev Pract 2008;18:164-75.
Kelly JA, Somlai AM, Benotsch EG, Amirkhanian YA, Fernandez MI, Stevenson LY, et al.
Programmes, resources, and needs of HIV-prevention nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in africa, central/Eastern europe and central asia, latin america and the caribbean. AIDS Care 2006;18:12-21.
Unnithan M, Heitmeyer C. Global rights and state activism: Reflections on civil society-State partnerships in health in NW India. Contrib Indian Sociol 2012;46:283-310.
Nurul Alam SM. Health service delivery: The state of government-non-government relations in Bangladesh. Public Adm Dev 2011;31:273-81.
Hou J, Xiao R. Identifying critical success factors of linkage mechanism between government and non-profit in the geo-disaster emergency decision. Int J Emerg Manage 2015;11:146-68.
Razavi SD, Kapiriri L, Abelson J, Wilson M. Who is in and who is out? A qualitative analysis of stakeholder participation in priority setting for health in three districts in uganda. Health Policy Plan 2019;34:358-69.
Rached DH, Ventura DF. World health organization and the search for accountability: A critical analysis of the new framework of engagement with non-state actors. Cad Saude Publica 2017;33:e00100716.
Roche S, Hall-Clifford R. Making surgical missions a joint operation: NGO experiences of visiting surgical teams and the formal health care system in guatemala. Glob Public Health 2015;10:1201-14.
McLoughlin C. Factors affecting state-non-governmental organization relations in service provision: Key themes from the literature. Public Adm Dev 2011;31:240-51.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]