Determinants of mammography screening in Tehranian women in 2018 based on the health belief model: A cross-sectional study
Masoumeh Rezaeimanesh1, Mahnaz Solhi2, Farbod Ebadi Fard Azar2, Homeira Sajjadi3, Hassan Rafiey3, Farhad Nosrati Nejad4, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi Gharehghani5, Marzieh Najafi6, Sayedeh Mahboobeh Hosseini7, Salah Eddin Karimi8
1 PhD Candidate of Health Education and Health Promotion, School of Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Health Promotion Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Social Welfare Management; Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Social Welfare Management, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
5 Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
6 Shoushtar Faculty of Medical Sciences, Shoushtar, Iran
7 Clinical Research Development Unit, Ayatollah Kashani Hospital, Shahrekord University of Medical Science, Shahrekord, Iran
8 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
Dr. Salah Eddin Karimi
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Management and Safety Promotion Research Institute, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Mammography is the most sensitive and important method for screening and early diagnosis of breast cancer. Considering the importance of using mammography in breast cancer screening, this study was performed to evaluate mammographic determinants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, we surveyed 985 women over 40 years in Tehran concerning demographic characteristics: age, socioeconomic status, a problem in the breast, alcohol use, drug use, and health belief model. Logistic regression was used to identify determinant factors associated with mammography performance.
RESULTS: The results of this study showed that 42.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 38, 45) participant performed mammography at least once during their lifetime. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 4.252; 95% CI = 2.041–8.857); housing situation (OR = 1.706; 95% CI = 1.178–2.469); having breast problems (OR = 5.224; 95% CI = 3.501–7.795); socioeconomic status (OR = 1.855; 95% CI = 1.035–3.325); family income level (OR = 1.998; 95% CI = 1.028–3.884); alcohol consumption (OR = 2.676; 95% CI = 1.344–5.328); smoking (OR = 2.824; 95% CI = 1.418–5.623); self-efficacy (OR = 1.935; 95% CI = 1.242–3.015); perceived barriers (OR = 2.017; 95% CI = 1.348–3.019); self-care (OR = 4.901; 95% CI = 3.152–7.620); perceived susceptibility (OR = 1.971; 95% CI = 1.271–3.057) and perceived severity (OR = 1.830; 95% CI = 1.170–2.860) were mammography behaviors determinants.
CONCLUSION: The findings indicated that the rate of mammography screening among Tehranian women is low and highlights the need for developing a comprehensive national breast cancer control program, which should be considered as the priority for health-care providers. Furthermore, the identification of these factors can help to design an appropriate educational intervention that focuses on the benefits of mammography screening.