Home About us Editorial board Search Browse articles Submit article Instructions Contacts Login 
Users Online: 6320
Home Print this page Email this page


Previous article Browse articles Next article 
J Edu Health Promot 2020,  9:192

Efficacy of cloth face mask in prevention of novel coronavirus infection transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis

1 College of Nursing, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India
2 Department of Pulmonary Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, Uttarakhand, India

Date of Submission19-May-2020
Date of Acceptance11-Jun-2020
Date of Web Publication28-Jul-2020

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Suresh K Sharma
College of Nursing, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh - 249 203, Uttarakhand
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_533_20

Rights and Permissions

INTRODUCTION: Novel coronavirus is believed to be tiny enough (0.08–0.14 μm) to penetrate through face mask, thus protection offered by cloth mask may be too low. However, the use of cloth face mask in community has been recommended by the United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention and regulatory bodies of other countries. There is paucity of literature on efficacy of cloth face mask in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection transmission; thus, this review aims to update the available most recent evidences on efficacy of cloth face masks in prevention of viral infection transmission.
METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Clinical Trials Register for identifying studies related to this review using free-text terms and MeSH terms. Both experimental and observational studies on efficacy of cloth masks which were published in English language have been included in this review except expert opinions, commentaries, editorials, and review articles. Twelve studies were eligible to be included in review for data extraction and qualitative synthesis was carried out from extracted data but quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) could not be performed because of serious heterogeneity between the studies.
RESULTS: Cloth face masks show minimum efficacy in source control than the medical grade mask. The efficacy of cloth face masks filtration varies and depends on the type of material used, number of layers, and degree of moisture in mask and fitting of mask on face.
CONCLUSION: Cloth face masks have limited efficacy in combating viral infection transmission. However, it may be used in closed, crowded indoor, and outdoor public spaces involving physical proximity to prevent spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Keywords: COVID-19, face masks, homemade mask, viral infection

How to cite this article:
Sharma SK, Mishra M, Mudgal SK. Efficacy of cloth face mask in prevention of novel coronavirus infection transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Edu Health Promot 2020;9:192

How to cite this URL:
Sharma SK, Mishra M, Mudgal SK. Efficacy of cloth face mask in prevention of novel coronavirus infection transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Edu Health Promot [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Jul 2];9:192. Available from: http://www.https://jehp.net//text.asp?2020/9/1/192/290942

  Introduction Top

The use of face mask is quite common among people of Asian Countries such as South Korea, Japan, China, and Thailand; pollution or earlier outbreaks of respiratory illnesses such as SARS and H1N1 could be the reason for this practice of mask usage. The current outbreak of COVID-19 is devastating and China dictated that everyone must wear face mask but also recommended use of cloth face mask for people at very low risk of contracting and spreading infection.[1]

The United States Centre for Disease Control and Prevention also recommended cloth face covering especially in areas of significant community-based transmission and discouraged people to use surgical face mask[2] to prevent their irrational usage that could potentially cause a serious shortage for frontline health-care workers (HCWs) who actually need it.[3] On similar lines, countries such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Singapore specifically urged people not to use surgical face mask to procure enough supplies in stock for HCWs.[4]

Countries such as the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Morocco, Turkey, Poland, Jamaica, Germany went a step further in their attempt to curb virus spread, mandating the use of face masks, with citizens facing penalties if caught barefaced. India acted in accordance to situation and followed a modest approach and advised people to wear homemade cloth mask along with meticulous hand hygiene to prevent transmission of the novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2).[5]

SARS-CoV-2 primarily spreads through droplet and contact transmission;[6],[7] however, the risk of airborne transmission remains questionable and requires additional empirical data for confirmation.[8],[9] Droplet and contact methods are considered as predominant modes for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 but reports still present conflicting data about universal use of face mask to curb such transmission.

COVID-19 is a pandemic, which people are struggling to combat worldwide and countries are facing scarcity of resources especially medical grade masks (surgical masks, N95, and other necessary respirators). In such situation, it is important that policymakers look for other options to maintain or balance the chain of demand and supply to minimize infection transmission.[10] Therefore, it is crucial at this point to know the efficacy of cloth face masks as an alternative for medical masks for the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Amidst current knowledge gaps, evidence-based answer is urgently required for a critically important question, i.e., does the cloth face mask help curb SARS-CoV-2 transmission? To meet this important need of the hour, we present this comprehensive, rapid evidence-based review to answer the aforesaid question.

  Methods Top

Search strategy

Using PRISMA guidelines, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials Register for identifying studies related to this Review. Free-text terms and Mesh terms such as “masks” OR “respiratory protective devices” AND “COVID-19,” “masks” OR “mask” AND “(cloth OR fabric OR homemade OR home-made)” “virus diseases,” “respiratory AND “virus diseases “AND “mask” “masks,” and “respiratory protective devices” or “masks” AND “respiratory tract infections” were used for the purpose. Two reviewers carried out the search, examined the eligibility of the studies independently. We also reviewed cross-references cited in retrieved articles to identify additional relevant studies. The discrepancy among the two reviewers was resolved through discussion with the primary reviewer.

Study selection

We selected studies, which were fulfilling the following criteria:

  • Studies examining cloth face mask filtration effectiveness
  • Studies examining cloth face mask efficacy in clinical and community settings
  • Studies published in English language
  • All experimental and observational studies till the date of search.

  • We excluded the following studies or papers:

  • Case reports, letters, editorials, opinions
  • Review papers.

Data extraction

Data regarding selected variables were extracted from each included study as per objective of this review, including the filtration efficacy of cloth face masks and clinical outcomes. Finally, 12 articles [Figure 1] were found suitable for consideration in writing this comprehensive evidence-based rapid review.
Figure 1: PRISMA flow diagram

Click here to view

Assessment of risk of bias

Risk of bias for the included randomized controlled trials was assessed using the risk of bias Tool version 2 by the Cochrane Collaboration. Two independent authors carried out risk of bias assessment. The summary of risk of bias is presented in [Figure 2]. Quality of the observational studies was assessed on the basis of STROBE guidelines and mentioned in respective summary table.
Figure 2: Risk bias summary

Click here to view

Data synthesis and analysis

The data were categorized and tabulated based on review objectives. The meta-analysis could not be done because of clinical and methodological heterogeneity among included studies. Therefore, narrative summary approach was used for data synthesis.

  Results Top

We performed literature search till May 10, 2020, as per PRISMA guideline [Figure 1]. A total of 861 studies were identified using different data bases (PubMed-323, EMBASE-378, Cochrane Library and Clinical Trial-127 and 25, respectively, while 8 studies were from other sources). We identified 12 studies,[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15],[16],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21] which fulfilled eligibility criteria of our review. Among them, nine studies were non-clinical trials, one study was nonrandomized controlled trial, and other two studies were randomized controlled trials [Table 1] and [Table 2].
Table 1: Summary of interventional studies on efficacy of cloth face masks versus medical grade masks for prevention of viral infection transmission

Click here to view
Table 2: Summary of observational studies on efficacy of cloth face masks versus medical grade masks for prevention of viral infection transmission

Click here to view

There is no published randomized controlled trial to advocate mask usage as an effective strategy for control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, although various studies have tried to indirectly assess the efficacy of masks against spread of various respiratory infections. A review has also demonstrated the use of hand washing as an additional practice to mask users that may decrease the dissemination of respiratory viral infection.[22]

An evidence-based review recommended that practice of wearing cloth mask is an effective strategy for SARS-CoV-2 infection control in conjunction with social distancing, hand hygiene, and contact tracing measures.[23] The evidences from various studies and recommendations of different organizations suggested that cloth masks are not ideal, but in the present situation of COVID-19 pandemic, where some countries are facing shortage of N95 or surgical masks, the only option left is to use cloth masks and they may be effective in preventing infection transmission.[11] The Institute of Medicine (IOM) acknowledged the probable reliance on cloth masks during an influenza pandemic and recommended the need for further research on the use of cloth masks.[22] [Table 1] and [Table 2] show the role of homemade masks in clinical efficacy,[11],[12] filtration efficacy in laboratory setup,[10],[11],[13],[14],[15],[17],[18],[19],[20],[21] effect of leakage on masks efficacy,[14] and compliance.[16]

The SARS-CoV-2 virus particle is very tiny (0.08–0.14 μm),[11] therefore, tightly woven cotton fabric such as towel, scarves, cotton sheets, quilt or T-shirt fabric were also recommended for making cloth mask to improve its virus filtration efficacy, comfort, and enhanced moisture regain (7%–11%).[2],[18],[19] Additional features to enhance the filtration efficiency of cloth masks may be a snug fit mask with minimal leak and use of three-layered mask with middle layer made of nonwoven breathable filter of anti-microbial finish, like coffee filter.[2],[18] Strict adherence to mask wearing, regular washing with detergent and disinfection in sunlight is essential for achieving enhanced efficacy of cloth face mask. A brief summary on efficacious use of cloth mask is presented in [Table 3].
Table 3: Summary on efficacious use of cloth mask in community setting

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

Although there is lack of strong empirical evidence on efficacy of cloth face masks; however, available literature reports a lower level of efficacy of cloth facemask in reducing the risk of contracting viral infections.[11],[13],[21] Furthermore, filtering efficiency of cloth face mask is seriously affected by risk of poor facial fitting of cloth masks,[14] which is further lowered by repeated washing and drying cycle.[15] Studies have reported that filtration efficacy of cloth masks is strongly affected by various factors such as type of cloth, layers of cloth in mask, combination of different types of cloths, leakage of air around mask, and degree of moisture in mask. Three or more layers of cotton cloth mask in combination with either silk, chiffon, or flannel which is well-fitted on face with minimal or no leak of air around mask and having no moisture provides the best possible protection against viral infection.[14],[24],[26],[27],[29]

Studies have stated that cloth face masks are ineffective to prevent influenza-like diseases when compared to the surgical masks (relative risk 13.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74–100.97). Moreover, filtration efficacy of cloth face mask was found as low as 3% on laboratory based filtration test of cloth masks, which could be because of poor quality of cloth used for making face mask.[11]

Surprisingly, one of the studies reported no relationship between compliance rate of cloth face mask and rate of infection; which raises doubts on whether the use of mask has any role in prevention of risk for contracting the viral infection. However, these findings were contradictory to the findings of a systematic review and meta-analysis published in 2011.[30] This review presented the results of seven case–control studies and reported that the odds ratio of group using cloth masks versus control group was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.26–0.39) on rate of respiratory viral infection.

Filtering efficiency of cloth face masks is low as compared to surgical and 95 masks and it may be further affected by several other factors. First, small number of aerosols passing through the cloth mask may be enough in number to make a person infected. Another probability is that, the leakage around the cloth masks may significantly reduce its efficiency and studies also reported that leakage may decrease nearly 50% of masks efficacy.[14],[31] However, these problems may also be related to medical grade masks and affects their efficiency. Cloth masks are routinely washed and dried and used for a long time while surgical masks disposed after single use. However, one study[15] reported that washing and drying repeatedly may deteriorate the quality and efficacy of the cloth masks, by nearly 20% after four times of this cycle.

The cotton cloth face masks which are made up of multiple alternative layers of cotton and any of these-silk, chiffon, or flannel fabric that are well fitted on face to ensure minimal or no leak may provide filtration efficacy as high as >90%. The two-layered cotton fabric face mask with 240 threads per centimeter reported a filtering efficiency of 99.5 ± 0.1%; which is close to that of N95 masks (99.9% ± 0.1%) for >300 nm size particle.[14]

There is lack of strong well-designed evidences on efficacy of cloth face mask in the prevention of viral infections and moreover, the findings are conflicting on some aspects such as quality of cloth, design of mask, fitness on face, compliance, and other factors. The compliance of wearing a face mask is as low as <50%[11] and it may be due to feeling of suffocation and hindrance in communication.

Cloth face mask is less efficacious as compared to surgical mask and N95 masks; they must be preserved for the frontline health-care providers and high risk people. Therefore, cloth face mask maybe used by people in high-risk situations like closed, crowded public spaces where there is high risk of close physical proximity with other people. However, wearing face mask may give a false sense of security to the wearer, which may contribute to low hand hygiene compliance, poor respiratory etiquettes, breaching norms of social distancing, and risk of repeated touching of nose and face to adjust the face mask.[32] Therefore, people must be educated that cloth face mask should be used as complimentary measure of infection prevention along with meticulous hand washing, social distancing, respiratory etiquettes and avoid touching nose, face, or mask without hand washing.

Study limitations and novelty

This review paper discussed the efficacy of cloth face masks in prevention of infection caused by viruses in hospital and community settings. With authors' best knowledge, this review included highest numbers of studies to make a conclusion on the same subject.

We did not find any study, which compares the efficacy of cloth masks in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, only two randomized controlled trials were included that examined the efficacy of different masks. However, one of them was under powered and conducted among four participants. Because of the rapidity of this article, we were not able to search other databases or article archives such as CINAHL, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrial.gov.

  Conclusion Top

Cloth face masks are less efficacious as compared to medical grade masks; however, something is better than nothing; therefore, it may be transiently used in closed, crowded indoor, and outdoor public spaces during highly contagious viral pandemics like COVID-19. However, the importance of meticulous hand hygiene, respiratory etiquettes, social distancing (>2 meters), and avoidance of repetitively touching one's face, nose, eyes, and mouth as basic measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission cannot be overemphasized. Nonetheless, the cloth masks are not found efficacious for infection prevention in hospital setting; therefore, its use for health-care workers should not be recommended.

The efficacy of cloth mask can be improved by multilayer cloth mask made of cotton in combination with synthetic cloth material, which has proper fitting on face, and must be regularly changed. Furthermore, a well-designed randomized controlled trial must be conducted to assess the efficacy of cloth face mask.


We are very thankful to Ms. Kalpana Thakur, Ms. Priya Sharma and Sh. Sandeep Singh for their valuable suggestions and feedback for first draft of this article.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Feng S, Shen C, Xia N, Song W, Fan M, Cowling B. Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med 2020;8:434-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus Disease-19: Recommendation Regarding the Use of Cloth Face Coverings, Especially in Areas of Significant Community-Based Transmission; 2020. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/cloth-face-cover.html#studies. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 25].  Back to cited text no. 2
Jeno M. CDC Updates Guidelines on PPE for Health care Personnel; COVID-19 Declared a Pandemic; 11 March, 2020. Available from: https://www.aappublications.org/news/2020/03/11/coronavirus031120. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 25].  Back to cited text no. 3
Which Countries have Made Wearing Face Masks Compulsory? Alijazeera; 24 April, 2020. Available from: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/04/countries-wearing-face-masks-compulsory-200423094510867.html. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 24].  Back to cited text no. 4
Office of the Principal Advisor to Government of India. Manual on Home-Made Protective Cover for the Face and Mouth for Curbing Spread of SARS CoV-2 Virus. 23 April, 2020. Available from: http://file:///C:/Users/Aiims/Downloads/Advisory&ManualonuseofHomemadeProtectiveCoverforFace&Mouth.cleaned.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 25].  Back to cited text no. 5
Liu J, Liao X, Qian S, Yuan J, Wang F, Liu Y, et al. Community transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Shenzhen, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis 2020;26(6):1320-3. https://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2606.200239.  Back to cited text no. 6
Sharma SK, Mudgal SK, Panda PK, Gupta P, Agarwal P. COVID–19: Guidance outlines on infection prevention and control for health care workers. Indian J Comm Health 2020;32(01)8-14.  Back to cited text no. 7
World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19); 16-24 February, 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default- source/coronaviruse/whochina-joint-mission-on-covid-19-final-report.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 25].  Back to cited text no. 8
van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1. N Engl J Med 2020;382:1564-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
Ma QX, Shan H, Zhang HL, Li GM, Yang RM, Chen JM. Potential utilities of mask-wearing and instant hand hygiene for fighting SARS-CoV-2. J Med Virol 2020; 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25805.  Back to cited text no. 10
MacIntyre C, Seale H, Dung T, Hien N, Nga P, Chughtai A et al. Cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006577.  Back to cited text no. 11
Bae S, Kim M, Kim J, Cha H, Lim J, Jung J, et al. Effectiveness of surgical and cotton masks in blocking SARS–CoV-2: A controlled comparison in 4 patients. Ann Int Med 2020;M20-1342. doi: 10.7326/M20-1342.   Back to cited text no. 12
Davies A, Thompson K, Giri K, Kafatos G, Walker J, Bennett A. Testing the efficacy of homemade masks: Would they protect in an influenza pandemic?. Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2013;7:413-18.  Back to cited text no. 13
Konda A, Prakash A, Moss GA, Schmoldt M, Grant GD, Guha S. Aerosol filtration efficiency of common fabrics used in respiratory cloth masks. ACS Nano 2020;14:6339-47.  Back to cited text no. 14
Neupane B, Mainali S, Sharma A, Giri B. Optical microscopic study of surface morphology and filtering efficiency of face masks. Peer J 2019;7:e7142.  Back to cited text no. 15
Chughtai A, Seale H, Dung T, Hayen A, Rahman B, Raina MacIntyre C. Compliance with the use of medical and cloth masks among healthcare workers in Vietnam. Ann Occupat Hygiene 2016;60:619-30.  Back to cited text no. 16
Shakya K, Noyes A, Kallin R, Peltier R. Evaluating the efficacy of cloth facemasks in reducing particulate matter exposure. Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol 2016;27:352-57.  Back to cited text no. 17
Jung H, Kim J, Lee S, Lee J, Kim J, Tsai P, et al. Comparison of filtration efficiency and pressure drop in anti-yellow sand masks, quarantine masks, medical masks, general masks, and handkerchiefs. Aerosol Air Qual Res 2014;14:991-1002.  Back to cited text no. 18
Rengasamy S, Eimer B, Shaffer E. Simple respiratory protection-evaluation of the filtration performance of cloth masks and common fabric materials against 20–1000 nm size particles. Ann Occup Hyg 2010;54:789-98.  Back to cited text no. 19
Dato VM, Hostler D, Hahn ME. Simple respiratory mask. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:1033-4.  Back to cited text no. 20
van der Sande M, Teunis P, Sabel R. Professional and home-made face masks reduce exposure to respiratory infections among the general population. PLoS One 2008;3:e2618.  Back to cited text no. 21
Institute of Medicine (IOM) National Academy of Sciences. Reusability of Facemasks During an Influenza Pandemic: Facing the Flu Committee on the Development of Reusable Facemasks for Use During an Influenza Pandemic. CIDRAP; 2020. Available from: https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2006/04/iom-assesses-reuse-masks-flu-pandemic. [Last accessed on 2020 May 30].  Back to cited text no. 22
Howard J, Huang A, Li Z, Tufekci Z, Zdimal V, van der Westhuizen H, et al. Face Masks Against COVID-19: An Evidence Review; 2020. Available from: https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202004.0203/v1. [Last accessed on 2020 May 03].  Back to cited text no. 23
Milton DK, Fabian MP, Cowling BJ, Grantham ML, McDevitt JJ. Influenza virus aerosols in human exhaled breath: Particle size, culturability, and effect of surgical masks. PLoS Pathog 2013;9:e1003205.  Back to cited text no. 24
Brainard J, Jones N, Lake I, Hooper L, Hunter PR. Face mask and similar barriers to prevent respiratory illness such as Covid-19: A rapid systematic review. BMJ: MedRxic [Internet]. [Last accesed on 2020 Apr 25]. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.01.20049528.  Back to cited text no. 25
Leung N, Chu D, Shiu E, Chan K, McDevitt J, Hau B, et al. Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks. Nat Med 2020;26:676-80.  Back to cited text no. 26
Lee S, Grinshpun S, Reponen T. Respiratory performance offered by N95 respirators and surgical masks: Human subject evaluation with NaCl aerosol representing bacterial and viral particle size range. Ann Occup Hyg 2008;52:177-85.  Back to cited text no. 27
World Health Organization. Advice on the use of Masks in the Context of COVID-19; 2020. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331693. [Last accessed on 2020 May 10].  Back to cited text no. 28
Wei W, Li Z, Chiew C, Yong S, Toh M, Lee V. Presymptomatic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 — Singapore, January 23–March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020;69:411-15.  Back to cited text no. 29
Jefferson T, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Ferroni E, Al-Ansary LA, Bawazeer GA, et al. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011 Jul; 2011(7):CD006207. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub4.  Back to cited text no. 30
Cooper D, Hinds W, Price J, Weker R, Yee H. Common materials for emergency respiratory protection: Leakage tests with a manikin. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1983;44:720-26.  Back to cited text no. 31
Greenhalgh T, Schmid M, Czypionka T, Bassler D, Gruer L. Face masks for the public during the covid-19 crisis. BMJ 2020;369:m1435.  Back to cited text no. 32


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]

This article has been cited by
1 SARS-CoV-2 aerosol risk models for the Airplane Seating Assignment Problem
J.A. Pavlik, I.G. Ludden, S.H. Jacobson
Journal of Air Transport Management. 2022; 99: 102175
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Factors Associated with Mask Use in New York City Neighborhood Parks During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Field Audit Study
Lisa Hitch, Marie A Sillice, Hanish Kodali, Katarzyna Wyka, Javier Otero Peña, Terry T-K Huang
Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Modes de transmission du SARS-CoV-2 : que sait-on actuellement ?
Gabriel Birgand, Solen Kerneis, Jean-Christophe Lucet
M?decine et Maladies Infectieuses Formation. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Recent Advances in Facemask Devices for In Vivo Sampling of Human Exhaled Breath Aerosols and Inhalable Environmental Exposures
Bin Hu
TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry. 2022; : 116600
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Electrospun Nanofibrous Membranes for Controlling Airborne Viruses: Present Status, Standardization of Aerosol Filtration Tests, and Future Development
Hongchen Shen, Minghao Han, Yun Shen, Danmeng Shuai
ACS Environmental Au. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Speech air flow with and without face masks
Donald Derrick, Natalia Kabaliuk, Luke Longworth, Peiman Pishyar-Dehkordi, Mark Jermy
Scientific Reports. 2022; 12(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Experiences with public health recommendations for COVID-19: a qualitative study of diverse mothers with young children in the United States
Katherine R. Arlinghaus, Derek Hersch, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, Katie A. Loth
Journal of Communication in Healthcare. 2022; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Filtration efficiency analysis of cotton cloth-based mask for reducing transmission rate of COVID-19 using PM2.5 detection methods
Sidik Permana, Nuri Trianti
Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2022; 2243(1): 012067
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 A mechanistic model for airborne and direct human-to-human transmission of COVID-19: effect of mitigation strategies and immigration of infectious persons
Saheb Pal, Indrajit Ghosh
The European Physical Journal Special Topics. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Knowledge, attitude and practice towards facemask use amid the COVID-19 pandemic among public transport drivers in Debre-Tabor town, Ethiopia
Wubet Gashaw Mehiret, Zimamu Libsuye Yalgaw
Journal of Community Medicine and Health Solutions. 2022; 3(1): 001
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Associations Between Wearing Masks and Respiratory Viral Infections: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
Yiming Chen, Yuelin Wang, Ningbin Quan, Jun Yang, Yinyin Wu
Frontiers in Public Health. 2022; 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Wearing a Mask Shapes Interpersonal Space during COVID-19 Pandemic
Monica Biggio, Ambra Bisio, Valentina Bruno, Francesca Garbarini, Marco Bove
Brain Sciences. 2022; 12(5): 682
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Review on benefits, toxicity, challenges, and future of graphene-based face masks in the prevention of COVID-19 pandemic
Siyanand Kumar Chaudhary, Nabina Chaudhary, Rahul Chaudhary, Narendra Kumar Chaudhary
PeerJ Materials Science. 2022; 4: e20
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Effect of face mask on voice production during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review
Shekaraiah Sheela,Suresh Kiran
Journal of Voice. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Facing COVID-19: Quantifying the Use of Reusable vs. Disposable Facemasks
Dirk H. R. Spennemann
Hygiene. 2021; 1(3): 120
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Review of materials and testing methods for virus filtering performance of face mask and respirator
Bhanu Bhakta Neupane,Basant Giri
PeerJ Materials Science. 2021; 3: e17
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 SARS-CoV-2, surgeons and surgical masks
Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil,Gouri Rani Banik,Sarab Mansoor,Amani S Alqahtani,Harunor Rashid
World Journal of Clinical Cases. 2021; 9(10): 2170
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Efficacy of face masks against respiratory infectious diseases: a systematic review and network analysis of randomized-controlled trials
Thach Quang Tran,Esraa Mahmoud Mostafa,Gehad Mohamed Tawfik,Mohammed Soliman,Seshini Mahabir,Randi Mahabir,Vinh Dong,Rohanti Ravikulan,Suleiman Alhijazeen,Doha Ahmed Farrag,Shyam Prakash Dumre,Nguyen Tien Huy,Kenji Hirayama
Journal of Breath Research. 2021; 15(4): 047102
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 ‘Distant socializing,’ not ‘social distancing’ as a public health strategy for COVID-19
Seithikurippu R. Pandi-Perumal,Sophie R. Vaccarino,Vijay Kumar Chattu,Nevin F.W. Zaki,Ahmed S. BaHammam,Dilshad Manzar,G J M Maestroni,Deborah Suchecki,Adam Moscovitch,Ferdinand Zizi,Girardin Jean-Louis,Meera Narasimhan,Chellamuthu Ramasubramanian,Ilya Trakht,Mary V. Seeman,John M Shneerson,Michael Maes,Russel J Reiter,Sidney H. Kennedy
Pathogens and Global Health. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Effects of FFP2/N95 face mask on low- and high-load resistance exercise performance in recreational weight lifters
Bruno Viana Rosa,Fabrício Eduardo Rossi,Helton Pereira dos Santos Nunes de Moura,Arilene Maria da Silva Santos,Acácio Salvador Véras-Silva,Sérgio Luís Galan Ribeiro,Fabio Yuzo Nakamura,Marcos Antonio Pereira dos Santos
European Journal of Sport Science. 2021; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Electrospun Polystyrene and Acid-Treated Cellulose Nanocrystals with Intense Pulsed Light Treatment for N95-Equivalent Filters
Danny Wong,Sean Hartery,Erin Keltie,Rachel Chang,Jong Sung Kim,Simon S. Park
ACS Applied Polymer Materials. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Máscaras do Bem: An analysis of face-mask performance from a volunteer mask-making initiative in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
Karina F.S. Leite,Kezi Cheng,Shailabh Kumar,Emilia M.P.C. Chayamiti,Marcia Costa,Maryann C. Tung,Karen M.L. Morejón,Cátia H.D. Salomão,Stella C. Lopes,Henrique Pacini
Public Health in Practice. 2021; : 100094
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Efficacy of facemasks in mitigating respiratory exposure to submicron aerosols
Ashish Sharma,Hamid Omidvarborna,Prashant Kumar
Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021; : 126783
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Masks for COVID-19
Wei Deng, Yajun Sun, Xiaoxue Yao, Karpagam Subramanian, Chen Ling, Hongbo Wang, Shauhrat S. Chopra, Ben Bin Xu, Jie-Xin Wang, Jian-Feng Chen, Dan Wang, Honeyfer Amancio, Stevin Pramana, Ruquan Ye, Steven Wang
Advanced Science. 2021; : 2102189
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 The role of disinfectants and sanitizers during COVID-19 pandemic: advantages and deleterious effects on humans and the environment
Kuldeep Dhama,Shailesh Kumar Patel,Rakesh Kumar,Rupali Masand,Jigyasa Rana,Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo,Ruchi Tiwari,Khan Sharun,Ranjan K. Mohapatra,Senthilkumar Natesan,Manish Dhawan,Tauseef Ahmad,Talha Bin Emran,Yashpal Singh Malik,Harapan Harapan
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Cost-effectiveness of surgical mask, N-95 respirator, hand-hygiene and surgical mask with hand hygiene in the prevention of COVID-19: Cost effectiveness analysis from Indian context
Bhavani Shankara Bagepally,Madhumitha Haridoss,Meenakumari Natarajan,Kathiresan Jeyashree,Manickam Ponnaiah
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2021; 10: 100702
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Eco-friendly masks preferences during COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia
Broto Widya Hartanto, Rita Dewi Triastianti
Cleaner and Responsible Consumption. 2021; : 100044
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 A Technical Review of Face Mask Wearing in Preventing Respiratory COVID-19 Transmission
Mingrui Liao,Huayang Liu,Xi Wang,Xuzhi Hu,Yuhao Huang,Xuqing Liu,Keith Brenan,Jared Mecha,Mahesan Nirmalan,Jian Ren Lu
Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science. 2021; : 101417
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Mask use in community settings in the context of COVID-19: A systematic review of ecological data
Nathan Ford,Haley K. Holmer,Roger Chou,Paul J. Villeneuve,April Baller,Maria Van Kerkhove,Benedetta Allegranzi
EClinicalMedicine. 2021; 38: 101024
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 A novel perspective approach to explore pros and cons of face mask in prevention the spread of SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens
M.D. Faruque Ahmad,Shadma Wahab,Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad,M. Intakhab Alam,Hissana Ather,Ayesha Siddiqua,Syed Amir Ashraf,Mohammad Abu Shaphe,Mohammed Idreesh Khan,Rashid Ali Beg
Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 A Serious Game Designed to Promote Safe Behaviors Among Health Care Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Development of “Escape COVID-19”
Mélanie Suppan,Gaud Catho,Tomás Robalo Nunes,Valérie Sauvan,Monique Perez,Christophe Graf,Didier Pittet,Stephan Harbarth,Mohamed Abbas,Laurent Suppan
JMIR Serious Games. 2020; 8(4): e24986
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Previous article  Next article
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded2611    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 31    

Recommend this journal